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Josephine St. Pierre Ruffin
Josephine St. Pierre Ruffin was a determined woman involved in many organizations aimed at changing the future for women. Mrs. Ruffin was a founder of the New England Women’s Club, a writer for the Courant (an African American weekly paper), a member of the New England Women’s Press Association, founder of the Women’s Era – the first newspaper published by an African American woman, and founder of the Woman’s Era Club. Aside from all of this organizations, Mrs. Ruffin believed that their should be a national organization for African American women. Thus, in 1895 Ms. Ruffin called a meeting for women in 20 different clubs. As a result, the National Association of Colored Women’s Clubs, Inc. was founded.
Ida. B. Wells Barnett
Wells challenged the Jim Crow Laws in Tennessee after she was removed from her seat when she refused to move to the “Colored only” car. However, Wells did not win the case. Wells wrote newspaper articles under the pen name Iola, she was a journalist for the Memphis Free Speech, she protested against lynching, founded Chicago’s Alpha Suffrage Club, served as secretary for the National Afro – American Council, was one of the founders of NAACP, founder of the Negro Fellowship League, and a founder of the National Association of Colored Women’s Clubs, Inc.
Mrs. Tubman was married to John Tubman. After hearing that she would be sold, she told her husband about that she planned to escape. Mr. Tubman told her that if she escaped, he would turn her in. After hearing that she had in fact been sold, she planned her escape. Mrs. Harriet Tubman was the conductor of the Underground Railroad and a member of the National Association of Colored Women’s Clubs, Inc.
Frances Ellen Watkins Harper
Frances Harper wrote poems about abolishing slavery and combined the issues of racism, feminism, and classism. Mrs. Harper gave moving speeches demanding equal rights for all, including black women. She also wrote a biography of Harriet Tubman life, was a member of the American Woman Suffrage Association, and a founder of the National Association of Colored Women’s Clubs, Inc.
Mary Church Terrell
Mrs. Mary Terrell was the founder of the Colored Womans League in Washington. This organization formed with two other clubs to form the National Association of Colored Women’s Clubs, Inc. Mrs. Terrell wrote many articles denouncing segregation, was the first African American woman appointed to the District of Columbia Board of Education, a charter member of NAACP, and she was a member of the International Congress of Women at Berlin.